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Alexander Nevsky in the Golden Horde. After the fall of the Khazars in the 10th century, the middle Volga came to be dominated by the mercantile state of Volga Bulgariathe last vestige of Greater Bulgaria centered at Phanagoria.
The Mongols held Russia and Volga Bulgaria in sway from their western capital at Sarai one of the largest cities of the medieval world. The princes of southern and eastern Russia had to pay tribute to the Mongols of the Golden Horde, commonly called Tatars ;  but in return they received charters authorizing them to act as deputies to the khans.
In general, the princes were allowed considerable freedom to rule as they wished,  while the Russian Orthodox Church even experienced a spiritual revival under the guidance of Metropolitan Alexis and Sergius of Radonezh. To the Orthodox Church and most princes, the fanatical Northern Crusaders seemed a greater threat to the Russian way of life than the Mongols.
Alexander obtained Mongol protection and assistance in fighting invaders from the west who, hoping to profit from the Russian collapse since the Mongol invasions, tried to grab territory and convert the Russians to Roman Catholicism. Under Mongol occupation, Russia also developed its postal road network, census, fiscal system, and military organization.
Grand Duchy of Moscow Rise of Moscow[ edit ] During the reign of DanielMoscow was little more than a small timber fort lost in the forests of Central Rus' Daniil Aleksandrovichthe youngest son of Alexander Nevsky, founded the principality of Moscow known as Muscovy in English which first cooperated with and ultimately expelled the Tatars from Russia.
Well-situated in the central river system of Russia and surrounded by protective forests and marshes, Moscow was at first only a vassal of Vladimir, but soon it absorbed its parent state.
A major factor in the ascendancy of Moscow was the cooperation of its rulers with the Mongol overlords, who granted them the title of Grand Prince of Moscow and made them agents for collecting the Tatar tribute from the Russian principalities. The principality's prestige was further enhanced when it became the center of the Russian Orthodox Church.
Its head, the Metropolitanfled from Kiev to Vladimir in and a few years later established the permanent headquarters of the Church in Moscow under the original title of Kiev Metropolitan.
By the middle of the 14th century, the power of the Mongols was declining, and the Grand Princes felt able to openly oppose the Mongol yoke.
Inat Kulikovo on the Don Riverthe Mongols were defeated,  and although this hard-fought victory did not end Tatar rule of Russia, it did bring great fame to the Grand Prince Dmitry Donskoy.
Moscow's leadership in Russia was now firmly based and by the middle of the 14th century its territory had greatly expanded through purchase, war, and marriage. The most successful practitioner of this process was Ivan III who laid the foundations for a Russian national state.
Ivan competed with his powerful northwestern rival, the Grand Duchy of Lithuaniafor control over some of the semi-independent Upper Principalities in the upper Dnieper and Oka River basins. A contemporary of the Tudors and other "new monarchs" in Western Europe, Ivan proclaimed his absolute sovereignty over all Russian princes and nobles.
Refusing further tribute to the Tatars, Ivan initiated a series of attacks that opened the way for the complete defeat of the declining Golden Hordenow divided into several Khanates and hordes. Ivan and his successors sought to protect the southern boundaries of their domain against attacks of the Crimean Tatars and other hordes.
The manor system provided a basis for an emerging cavalry based army. In this way, internal consolidation accompanied outward expansion of the state. By the 16th century, the rulers of Moscow considered the entire Russian territory their collective property. Various semi-independent princes still claimed specific territories,  but Ivan III forced the lesser princes to acknowledge the grand prince of Moscow and his descendants as unquestioned rulers with control over military, judicial, and foreign affairs.
Gradually, the Russian ruler emerged as a powerful, autocratic ruler, a tsar. Biographer Fennell concludes that his reign was "militarily glorious and economically sound," and especially points to his territorial annexations and his centralized control over local rulers.
However, Fennell, the leading British specialist on Ivan III, argues that his reign was also "a period of cultural depression and spiritual barrenness.
Freedom was stamped out within the Russian lands. By his bigoted anti-Catholicism Ivan brought down the curtain between Russia and the west. For the sake of territorial aggrandizement he deprived his country of the fruits of Western learning and civilization.
The development of the Tsar's autocratic powers reached a peak during the reign of Ivan IV —known as "Ivan the Terrible". Through these conquests, Russia acquired a significant Muslim Tatar population and emerged as a multiethnic and multiconfessional state.
Also around this period, the mercantile Stroganov family established a firm foothold in the Urals and recruited Russian Cossacks to colonise Siberia.
In the zone known as the oprichninaIvan's followers carried out a series of bloody purges of the feudal aristocracy whom he suspected of treachery after the betrayal of prince Kurbskyculminating in the Massacre of Novgorod in This combined with the military losses, epidemics, and poor harvests so weakened Russia that the Crimean Tatars were able to sack central Russian regions and burn down Moscow in The country rocked by internal chaos also attracted several waves of interventions by the Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth.Database of FREE history essays - We have thousands of free essays across a wide range of subject areas.
Sample history essays! Edexcel GCE AS and A level Russian information for students and teachers, including the specification, past papers, news and support. World History A-level essays on French and Russian Revolution. Will upload the rest later. by sheikhrukhasalman in Types > School Work, cie, and world history a levels.
Ancient Egyptian history is a long and complex one with more than 3, years of details. Charles Darwin was born in , seven years after his grandfather Erasmus had died.
Charles grew up during a conservative period in British and American society, shortly after the Napoleonic Wars. Level M = 5th - 8th PRINTABLES: Go to this link to print out the worksheets for ALL year 4 courses!
Please review the FAQs and contact us if you find a problem with a link. Materials: Basic Supplies Program Year 4, Level M Day 1** Bible Read John 1 Write a summary of what.