In broad terms, the risk management process consists of: Conduct a threat assessment. Acts of nature, acts of war, accidents, malicious acts originating from inside or outside the organization. Conduct a vulnerability assessmentand for each vulnerability, calculate the probability that it will be exploited.
Mason Today in western societies more people are employed collecting, handling and distributing information than in any other occupation. Millions of computers inhabit the earth and many millions of miles of optical fiber, wire and air waves link people, their computers and the vast array of information handling devices together.
Our society is truly an information society, our time an information age. The question before us now is whether the kind of society being created is the one we want. It is a question that should especially concern those of us in the MIS community for we are in the forefront of creating this new society.
There are many unique challenges we face in this age of information.
They stem from the nature of information itself. Information is the means through which the minds expands and increases its capacity to achieve its goals, often as the result of an input from another mind. Thus, information forms the intellectual capital from which human beings craft their lives and secure dignity.
However, the building of intellectual capital is vulnerable in many ways. The social contract among people in the information age must deal with these threats to human dignity.
The ethical issues involved are many and varied, however, it is helpful to focus on just four. These may be summarized by means of an acronym -- PAPA. What things can people keep to themselves and not be forced to reveal to others?
Who is responsible for the authenticity, fidelity and accuracy of information? Similarly, who is to be held accountable for errors in information and how is the injured party to be made whole?
What are the just and fair prices for its exchange? Who owns the channels, especially the airways, through which information is transmitted? How should access to this scarce resource be allocated? What information does a person or an organization have a right or a privilege to obtain, under what conditions and with what safeguards?
These are among the questions that a concern for privacy raises. Today more than ever cautious citizens must be asking these questions. Two forces threaten our privacy. One is the growth of information technology, with its enhanced capacity for surveillance, communication, computation, storage, and retrieval.
A second, and more insidious threat, is the increased value of information in decision-making. A case in point is the situation that occurred a few years ago in Florida. Several studies were commissioned. In one study at the Tallahassee Community College, monitors were stationed at least one day a week in every bathroom.
Every 15 seconds, the monitor observed the usage of the toilets, mirrors, sinks and other facilities and recorded them on a form. This data was subsequently entered into a data base for further analyses. Of course the students, faculty and staff complained bitterly, feeling that this was an invasion of their privacy and a violation of their rights.
State officials responded however, that the study would provide valuable information for policy making.
In effect the State argues that the value of the information to the administrators was greater than any possible indignities suffered by the students and others. Soon the ACLU joined the fray. At their insistence the study was stopped, but only after the state got the information it wanted.
Most invasions of privacy are not this dramatic or this visible. Rather, they creep up on us slowly as, for example, when a group of diverse files relating to a person and his or her activities are integrated into a single large database.
Collections of information reveal intimate details about a person and can thereby deprive the person of the opportunity to form certain professional and personal relationships. This is the ultimate cost of an invasion of privacy. So why do we integrate databases in the first place.This section includes relevant background text, definitions and examples, policy statements, a video debate, and expert commentary.
It should be read by those looking for both a fundamental and thorough understanding of privacy and confidentiality issues. Thomas Froehlich School of Library and Information Science Kent State University [email protected] Information ethics has grown over the years as a discipline in library and information science, but the field or the phrase has evolved and been embraced by many other disciplines.
eBay Founder Pierre Omidyar’s Group Wants to Help Prevent the Next Facebook Scandal. Omidyar Network commissioned the Markkula Center for Applied Ethics with launching the new Ethics in Technology Practice toolkit to help tech firms.
In the first section, we gave a brief definition of what is meant by professional ethics. In this section, we will briefly present some concepts and suggest some readings that take a look at the history of what is meant by a profession, some differing ways to think about professional ethics, and a brief analysis of what is meant by professional responsibility.
Four Ethical Issues of the Information Age by Richard O. Mason. Today in western societies more people are employed collecting, handling and distributing information than in any other occupation.
Introduction. For more than thirty-eight years, I have taught Reformational Philosophy at Dutch state universities. Every two years, I deal with the topic of Ethics of Technology.
As a thinker about the relation between Christian faith and technology, I have always been much interested in this subject.