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Historiography[ edit ] Since the territory understood by the term 'Austria' underwent drastic changes over time, dealing with a History of Austria raises a number of questions, eg. Furthermore, should an Austrian history include the period —, when it nominally did not exist?
Accordingly, within Austria there are also regionally and temporally varying affinities to adjacent countries.
History of Europe Human habitation of current Austria can be traced back to the first farming communities of the early Stone Age Paleolithic era.
In the late Iron Age it was occupied by people of the Hallstatt Celtic culture c. The people first organised as a nation state as a Celtic kingdom referred to by the Romans as Noricumdating from c.
The most important Roman settlement was at Carnuntumwhich can still be visited today as an excavation site. In the 6th century, Germanic people, the Bavarii occupied these lands until it fell to the Frankish Empire in the 9th century.
In the 10th century an eastern east of the River Enns outpost of the Duchy of Bavariabordering Hungarywas established as the Marchia orientalis March of the East or ' Margraviate of Austria ' inruled by the Margraves of Babenberg.
From the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa created an independent duchy Privilegium Minus under the House of Babenberguntil its extinction incorresponding to modern Lower Austria.
Following the Babenberg dynasty and a brief interregnumAustria came under the rule of the German king Rudolf I of Habsburg —beginning a dynasty that would last through seven centuries becoming progressively distinct from neighbouring Bavariawithin the Holy Roman Empire.
The 15th and early 16th century saw considerable expansion of the Habsburg territories through diplomacy and marriages to include Spainthe Netherlands and parts of Italy. This expansionism, together with French aspirations and the resultant Habsburg-French or Bourbon-Habsburg rivalry were important factors shaping European History for years — However the Ottoman Empire now lay directly adjacent to the Austrian lands.
Even after the unsuccessful first Siege of Vienna by the Turks inthe Ottoman threat persisted for another one and a half centuries. The 16th Century also saw the spread of the Reformation. From around the Habsburg policy of recatholicisation or Catholic Renewal Rekatholisierung eventually led to the Thirty Years' War — Originally a religious war, it was also a struggle for power in central Europe, particularly the French opposition to the Habsburg Holy Roman Empire.
Eventually the pressure of the anti-Habsburg coalition of France, Sweden, and most Protestant German states contained their authority to the Austrian and Czech lands in Inthe Ottoman forces were beaten back from Vienna a second time and eventually, in the Great Turkish War —pushed back beyond Belgrade.
These acquisitions together with conquests in the Balkans gave Austria its greatest territorial extent to date. Subsequently, Austria lost Silesia to Prussia. These Silesian Wars initiated a long-standing tension between Austria and Prussia. During her reign extensive reforms were initiated, and when Francis died inthese were continued by her son, Joseph II Emperor —; Archduke — However his successor, his brother, Leopold II —was much more conservative.Monsters from the ID: The Rise of Horror in Fiction and Film [E.
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